Thursday, January 28, 2016

Language Learning Theories



Learning Theories
There are 12 learning theories:
    Constructivism
    Behaviorism
    Piaget's Developmental Theory
    Neuroscience
    Brain-Based Learning
    Learning Styles
    Multiple Intelligences
    Right Brain/Left Brain
    Thinking
    Communities of Practice
    Control Theory
    Observational Learning
    Vygotsky and Social Cognition
In the mid-1950s, humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow created a theory of basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs that motivate individuals to move consciously or subconsciously through levels or tiers based on our inner and outer satisfaction of those met or unmet needs. I find this theory eternally relevant for students and adults, especially in today's education.
Learning means bringing changes, by learning human enters new society and culture. When they learned new understanding, they perform on it. Otherwise, they lose it.
As stated earlier, learning transfers changes (behaviorism) and creates new knowledge or increases information (cognitive skills).  Education empowers our brain and beliefs, so it encourages our intellectual power to improve knowledge.

Most important theories related to language learning.
1.       Behaviorist,
2.       Cognitive,
3.       Constructivism,
4.       Chomsky’s Universal Grammar
5.       Schumann’s Acculturation / Orientation in a new culture,
6.       Krashen’s Monitor
7.       Conversation
The conversation theory is a transdisciplinary learning theory. Developed by Gordon Pask in 1975, it is influenced by a range of cybernetics, linguistics, computer science concepts, cognitive psychology, and neurophysiology.

What learning theories do you follow and why?
How do you incorporate them into your teaching? Try to be as specific as you can. 
I use the mix of different theoriesIt depends on the kind of my students.
In my view, theoretical concepts do not yield concrete prescriptions for classroom application, but the good theory can be used flexibly and creatively by teachers in their planning and educational practice. At the same time, not all learning takes place in the classroom as much of it occurs at home, on the sports field, in museums and so forth (non-formal education), and sometimes implicitly and effortlessly (informal learning).
Non-formal education and informal learning are vital for improving language learning.
How People Learn and What are their Learning Styles?
This is my video about the topic

Nowadays the dominant theory is socio-constructivism which can be defined as an approach according to which individual knowledge relies on its social construction of it. (Piaget, Doise and Mugny, 1984). Particularly relevant in this respect are the communication processes (learning dialogs) occurring in situations where at least two persons try to solve a problem. The social world of a learner includes the people that directly affect that person, including teachers, friends, students, administrators, and participants in all forms of activities. Accordingly, learning designs should enhance local collaboration and dialogue but also engage other actors (e.g. domain experts) to participate in certain ways. Research on collaborative learning is particularly interested in learning mechanisms that are triggered by specific collaborative activities.
Key functionalities of a socio-constructivist learning environment are:
  • Reflection & Exchange
  • Scaffolding & Storyboarding
  • Facilitation & Content
  • Monitoring & Assessment
  • Production, Investigation, etc.
  • Psychological support & Community.
Theoretical concepts do not produce actual prescriptions for classroom application, but the good theory can be used flexibly and creatively by teachers in their planning and educational practice. At the same time, not all learning takes place in the classroom as much of it occurs at home, on the sports field, in museums and so forth (non-formal education), and sometimes implicitly and effortlessly (informal learning).
In the mid-1950s, humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow created a theory of basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs that motivate individuals to move consciously or subconsciously through levels or tiers based on our inner and outer satisfaction of those met or unmet needs. I find this theory increasingly relevant for students and adults, especially in today's education.
Additionally, I would like to highlight Constructivism as one of the hot topics in educational philosophy right now. It potentially has profound inferences for how current `traditional' instruction is structured, since it goes with several highly exposed educational trends, for example:
  • the transition of the teacher's role from "sage on the stage" (fount/transmitter of knowledge) to "guide on the side" (facilitator, coach);
  • teaching "higher order" skills such as problem-solving, reasoning, and reflection (for example, see also creative learning);
  • enabling learners to learn how to learn;
  • increasing flexibility in the evaluation of learning outcomes;
  • cooperative and collaborative learning skills.

For me, language learning through conversation and open communication is the most effective teaching technique.
I want my students to become active learners. As the brain works on a use-it-or-lose-it style, means students must apply whatever they learn.
It is necessary to use the new phrase or character in a real situation. Also learning the words and phrases through original videos helps to learn faster.
Moreover, I encourage my students to make language learning a passion.
I combine the fun of language learning with the commitment to follow through. They should remember that feeling the need to learn a new wording is not enough to take an action. Give yourself clarity on what exactly compels you to learn a new language.
My tips are;
  • Figure out the how to comprehend a desire to learn.
  • What’s the goal behind it?
  • What’s the bigger picture?
  • How will learn a new language open opportunities in future?
  • Just answering these questions will motivate learners to get to the much higher level to take action when necessary.